BEGIN:VCALENDAR VERSION:2.0 METHOD:PUBLISH X-WR-TIMEZONE:America/New_York PRODID:-//Apple Inc.//iCal 3.0//EN CALSCALE:GREGORIAN X-WR-CALNAME:Park School X-APPLE-CALENDAR-COLOR:#222222 BEGIN:VTIMEZONE TZID:America/New_York X-LIC-LOCATION:America/New_York BEGIN:DAYLIGHT TZOFFSETFROM:-0500 TZOFFSETTO:-0400 TZNAME:EDT DTSTART:19700308T020000 RRULE:FREQ=YEARLY;BYMONTH=3;BYDAY=2SU END:DAYLIGHT BEGIN:STANDARD TZOFFSETFROM:-0400 TZOFFSETTO:-0500 TZNAME:EST DTSTART:19701101T020000 RRULE:FREQ=YEARLY;BYMONTH=11;BYDAY=1SU END:STANDARD END:VTIMEZONE BEGIN:VEVENT SEQUENCE:711 DTSTART;TZID=America/New_York:20200205T160000 SUMMARY:Improving the Interface with the Prosthesis DESCRIPTION:by William Craelius, PhD, Professor in Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University Abstract The human neuromotor system rapidly learns and adapts to changing tasks. Adaptation to prosthetic limbs, therefore, should be achievable, given the appropriate hardware. Current prostheses can execute pre- programmed movements, but dexterity is severely limited due to the inherent limitations of the human–machine interface (HMI), which manifests as the absence of Agency with the prosthesis. Ideally, the prosthesis should link directly with the central nervous system and go "online" with the prosthetic control system. Force myography-based control is a beginning, however the user command signal taps the middle of the volition, not its beginning (which originates in the brain), of the efferent loop. Also prostheses lack the closed loop control provided by afferent channels. As a result, the user lacks the crucial sense of Agency with his new appendage. Methods for restoring Agency have been developed by several laboratories, including those here at Stevens Institute. Our lab at Rutgers has found evidence that insula activity in the brain relates to absence of Agency, and it can be modulated by presentation of an illusory hand. Insula activity seems to diminish when amputee subjects perceive illusory restoration of their hand (R. Beetel, Ph.D. Thesis). Since insula activity is associated with phantom limb pain (Willoch, Rosen et al. 2000), and may interfere with motor control circuits in the brain (Chand and Dhamala 2017), its removal can be a useful target for reducing pain and improving the human-machine interface (Powell, Kaliki et al. 2014). These and other studies (Marasco et Al,, 2018) suggest the importance of Agency, i.e. the feeling of ownership of the device, in the artificial restoration of dexterity to prosthetic Users. Biography William Craelius received his B.S. in Mechanical Analysis and Design from University of Illinois (Chicago), and M.S. & Ph.D. from Northwestern University (Environmental Health Engineering and Biomedical Engineering). He is Professor of Biomedical Engineering at Rutgers University (1989-present), and has mentored many graduate students. He works closely with clinicians and their patients, in achieving functional neuromotor restorations. Career highlights include, (1) discovery of mechano-sensors in the mammalian heart and kidney, (2) developing the first M.S. degree program in Prosthetic practice and Engineering , accredited by NCOPE , (3) discovery of the pathological role of iron deposits in the brain as a causative factor in multiple sclerosis. He holds 7 U.S. patents with co-inventors, and has authored over 60 peer-reviewed research publications and two books in prepublication: “Design Principles for Prosthetic Limbs” (Springer) and “Cellular Mechanotransduction” (Cambridge). His lab is credited with restoring useful hand dexterity to upper-limb amputees via a novel controller based on force myography. (See He is a Distinguished Fellow of the National Institute for Disability Research and Resources, 2003, and a Fellow in the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineers. DTEND;TZID=America/New_York:20200205T170000 END:VEVENT END:VCALENDAR